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Wednesday, July 18, 2007

Analisys cost of Theraphy Cancer

Taking a pricey breast cancer drug called lapatinib (Tykerb) with food rather than on an empty stomach may improve its absorption by the body -- lowering the doses needed and greatly cutting costs for patients, a new study shows.
In a commentary published in the Aug. 10 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Drs. Mark Ratain and Ezra Cohen, of the University of Chicago, suggest that taking the recently approved medication with food -- particularly high-fat food -- cuts the dosage needed by at least 60 percent.
Ratain -- a professor of medicine and associate director for clinical sciences in UC's Cancer Research Center -- joined Cohen (from the hematology/oncology section of UC's department of medicine) to highlight the findings of a study presented in March at the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
The study, which neither Ratain or Cohen was involved in, revealed that 500 milligrams of Tykerb taken with food appears to be as effective as 1,250 milligrams of the drug taken on an empty stomach, the current prescription protocol.
"What we have here is this unique situation where patients are shelling out more than they need to take a drug in a suboptimal manner," said Ratain.
The current regimen of five 250 milligram tablets per day, taken on an empty stomach, costs about $2,900 per month. But simply taking the pills with food could save the patient about $1,740 per month in drug expenses, a real "value meal" for patients, according to the experts.
Both Ratain and Cohen cautioned that physicians and patients should not alter Tykerb treatment protocols until further research substantiates these findings.
Tykerb was approved for use against breast cancer by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in March of this year. The oral tablet was developed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) for patients battling a specific type of advanced-stage breast cancer, in which HER2 -- a protein that promotes tumor growth -- is expressed.
According to the American Cancer Society, every year approximately 180,000 American women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Annually, upwards of 10,000 women are projected to die from the advanced stage, HER2-positive version of the disease.
The new treatment was approved for use in combination with another medication known as capecitabine (or Xeloda), for cases in which a range of other drugs, such as Herceptin, have ceased to be effective.
According to the FDA, Tykerb inhibits tumor growth by going inside cells containing the HER2 protein and blocking signals that promote tumor growth. In contrast, older drugs such as Herceptin have larger molecular structures that target the outside of the cell.
The FDA approval of Tykerb was based on the results of a study involving approximately 400 breast cancer patients with advanced-stage HER2 disease. That study revealed that women who took Tykerb in combination with capecitabine were significantly more likely to respond positively to treatment and to experience a delay in tumor growth. The ultimate impact Tykerb may have on long-term survival was still unknown at the time of approval.
As is standard procedure with all new drug approvals, the FDA worked with the drug's manufacturer to compose the instruction labeling accompanying Tykerb.
As currently worded, physicians and patients are clearly informed that the medication should be taken on an empty stomach, in light of the fact that all the study patients consuming Tykerb did take the drug without food.
However, another section of the labeling material notes that absorption of the drug is boosted when ingested with food.
Ratain said this kind of confusion happens when "getting things done quickly is considered more important than getting things done right."
"Here's the problem: Since the drug company didn't do their trials with food, they can not recommend that their drug be given with food," he said. "I think if the company knew before they started their trial that food would help absorption, there's no question they would have done the study with food. But they wanted to get the study started quickly, and they guessed wrong."
"So," concludes Ratain, "they had two choices: have the drug approved by the FDA as they had tested it in their trials, or delay the drug until they do new testing with food. And this sort of boxes them into a corner, because the market expectations for this drug is about a billion dollars a year in sales, and they want to get it out there."
"So, the bottom line is that, in the end, the label in one part says take it fasting, and in another place, it says the concentration and absorption in the blood is markedly increased if taken with food," Ratain noted. "The remedy is potentially to take a lower dose with food, which results in a significantly lower cost to the patient and/or their payers."
Ratain emphasized that Tykerb's interaction with food must now undergo further study before it can definitively be said that the current labeling instructions should be altered. However, he pointed out that he is not aware of any current plans on the part of GSK or a third party to conduct such a study.
Meanwhile, Ratain said that he and his colleague Cohen simply want to draw attention to a clear labeling discrepancy with major financial implications for breast cancer patients -- one that he believes might very well have slipped through the cracks in the complex world of oncology treatment.
Dr. David Flockhart is director of the division of clinical pharmacology at Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. He said he's inclined to agree that Ratain and Cohen have identified a hidden cost saving for patients.
"I think Ratain's probably right," said Flockhart. "Drugs are usually studied for concentration effects on fasting volunteers. This is routine, because it's very hard to predict how food may speed up or bind with a drug and alter absorption. So, the drug company did what they would normally do. But there happens to be a nice little accident here that could benefit patients."
"Of course, they're calling for more studies," he noted. "As is needed. Meanwhile, because tons of labels don't have perfect instructions in them, doctors will try to do what they always do: use the best information they have. And doctors may want to consider this new information," Flockhart said.

Monday, June 11, 2007

The Beneficial of black tea For Heart Health

Next to water Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Since ancient times it has been considered a precious commodity and major influence on trade routes and expeditions. Among all the teas available Black Tea has long been the most popular because of its distinct aroma and long lasting flavor. Now scientists, at the American Heart Association, are looking to Black Tea to see if it possesses life giving and extending properties.
Black Tea is derived from the leaves of the same perennial evergreen shrub known in Latin as Camellia Sinensis that Green Tea leaves come from. The difference in Black and Green leaves is the manner in which they are processed. Green leaves are not oxidized or fermented which allows them to retain natural enzymes but also decreases their shelf life. Black Tea on the other hand goes through a process of drying, rolling, fermenting, and firing which gives it its distinguishing color and distinct flavor.
The questions posed by modern medicine over Black Tea primarily concern its antioxidant properties and flavonoid compounds. Oxidation is a chemical reaction, which results in the loss of electrons of a molecule, atom, or ion. Oxidation of metals leads to rust. Oxidation in the human body leads to degenerative conditions such as hardening of the arteries. Antioxidants such as those found in tea act as scavengers hunting down free radicals that can damage cells through chemical chain reactions with other molecules.
Clinical trials have been conducted using Black Tea to determine if it has cholesterol-lowering affects. During such studies some subjects were given a caffeinated placebo beverage while others were given Black Tea. The results offered some evidence of Black Tea as an agent for lowering the oxidation of LDL cholesterols, which has been directly correlated to heart disease. Some scientists have suggested Black Tea can reduce the clotting factor of platelets in the blood and resist hardening of arteries. In test tubes the flavonoids found in Black Tea did in fact prevent clumping of blood platelets. This leads scientists to believe Black Tea can aid in preventing death after heart attacks when consumed regularly.

Sexual Health the Natural Way

Sexual health is a topic we often find difficult to define and master. Chinese medicine, with its focus on whole body wellness, supports sexual vitality in an active, complete way. In the age of quick-fix healthcare, it is becoming more necessary to slow the pace and reconnect with ourselves on a deeper level.
Sexuality is not widely considered a healthcare issue, but sexual desire can be a powerful source of healing and personal growth. When suppressed, diminished or dysfunctional, it can have negative effects on wellness. Sexual energy and passion make up a portion of our qi and feed positive aspects of our overall welfare. Sexual health can be greatly enhanced by principles inherent in Chinese medical philosophy.
Chinese herbal aphrodisiacs work in conjunction with every aspect of healthcare, such as good diet and exercise practices and maintaining positive mental health. An individual's sexual vigor will be increased and aided with the right herbal formula, but overall health and vitality are the key success factors. Chinese medicine seeks to strengthen entire body health.
Acupuncture has been used to treat infertility and sexual functioning to enhance the body's natural aphrodisiac responses. Studies have shown that acupuncture may affect parts of the central nervous system related to sensation and involuntary body functions through which blood pressure, blood flow and body temperature are regulated. These functions factor greatly into sexual vigor.
Acupuncture also regulates the flow of energy in the body. Jing energy is responsible for growth, development and reproduction and represents our sexuality. Jing is lost or consumed little by little throughout life, and once we lose jing, it cannot be replaced. We lose jing when we live recklessly -- drinking too much, excessive emotional reactions, working too hard, or inappropriate sexual behavior, for instance. Acupuncture can reduce the loss of jing, and with greater success when paired with moderate living. Many people feel out of control of their sexual energy because of its powerful nature. Reconnecting with the desire inherent in ourselves is an important aspect of gaining personal power and balance. The ancient Taosists believed that human life is governed by natural laws that produce prosperity when obeyed, but when violated cause catastrophe. With the wisdom, moderation and balance that Chinese medicine promotes, we can avoid illness and fully enjoy our sexual potential.

Now a Days, Getting sick is expensive...

Many people do not realized how important health in our life is.
Health is worthy when some one is getting sick. We only can realized that healthy is necessary when we get ill. We only feel how good to be haelthy. But when we recover from illness, we always forget the suffering of being sick and also forget to maintain the healthy before getting ill again.

Helathy life style, eating healthy food, sleep well & relaxation when you feel tired, doing sport regularly are things that we can do to stay healthy.
Are that things expensive..?? offcoure, they are not.
Imagine, when we lie down in the bed of a hospital, how much the cost of the hospital that we have pay it.
If we donot have any healthy insurance to cover it, maybe we have to sell the asset that we have to cover the cost of the hospital.
So, donot we agree that better to preverent that to cure illness.....

Sunday, May 27, 2007

Healthy is Expensive

many people forget about